© Bruce McNitt/Panoramic Images (Virginia)

Endemic Species | LandScope Virginia

Of the several thousand species that naturally occur in the state, some species have only been found in the Commonwealth -- these are considered endemic to Virginia. Nine vertebrate species and five vascular plant species are classified as such. 

Determining which of the thousands of invertebrate species are endemic is a difficult endeavor, due to both the overwhelming task of surveying for them across the state and the varying levels of survey effort being conducted by other heritage programs in adjacent states. These lists will continue to be refined as inventory work continues.

The lists below include global and state rarity ranks, federal legal status and state legal status. For an explanation of the codes, please click here. A value of NL in either of the federal or state legal status means there is no legal status for that level.

Virginia's Endemic Species


  • Virginia round-leaf birch (Betula uber)  G1Q S1 LT LE
  • Addison's leatherflower (Clematis addisonii)  G2 S2
  • Virginia white-haired leatherflower (Clematis coactilis)  G3 S3
  • Millboro leatherflower (Clematis viticaulis)  G2 S2
  • Peter's Mountain-mallow (Iliamna corei)  G1Q S1 LE LE




  • Clinch Sculpin (Cottus sp. 4)  G1G2 S1S2
  • Roughhead shiner (Notropis semperasper)  G2G3 S2S3 NL SC
  • Phoxinus sp. 1  G1 S1
  • Roanoke logperch (Percina rex)  G1G2 S1S2 LE LE


  • Shenandoah Salamander (Plethodon shenandoah)  G1 S1 LE LE
  • Peaks of Otter Salamander (Plethodon hubrichti)  G2 S2 NL SC
  • Big Levels Salamander (Plethodon sherando)  G2 S2


  • Smith Island Cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus hitchensi)  G5THQ SH
  • Pungo mouse (Peromyscus leucopus )  G5T1 S1?


Turbellaria (Flatworms)

  • Holsinger's Groundwater Planarian (Sphalloplana holsingeri) G1G2 SH
  • Bigger's Groundwater Planarian (Sphalloplana subtilis) G1G2 SH
  • Rockbridge County Cave Planarian (Sphalloplana virginiana) G1 S1
  • A Groundwater Planarian (Sphalloplana hypogea) G1G2 S1S2

Anellida (Segmented Worms)

  • A Cave Lumbriculid Worm (Spelaedrilus multiporus) G1 S1

Bivalvia (mussels & clams)

  • Virginia pigtoe (Lexingtonia subplana) G1Q S1

Gastropoda (snails)

  • Shaggy Coil (Helicodiscus diadema)  G1 S1 LE
  • Rubble Coil (Helicodiscus lirellus)  G1 S1 LE
  • Virginia Fringed Mountain Snail(=Virginia coil) (Polygyriscus virginianus)  G1 S1 LE LE
  • Spirit Supercoil (Paravitrea hera)  G1 S1 LE
  • Brown Supercoil (Paravitrea septadens)  G1 S1 LT NL
  • Virginia Springsnail (Fontigens morrisoni)  G1 S1 LE NL
  • Bottle Hornsnail (Pleurocera gradata)  G3 S3?
  • Piedmont Pondsnail (Stagnicola neopalustris) GH SH
  • Thankless ghostsnail (Holsingeria unthanksensis)  G2 S2 LE NL
  • Skyline Caverns Snail (Holsingeria sp. 1)  G1Q S1

Diplopoda/Chilopoda (Millipedes/Centipedes)

  • Ellett Valley Pseudotremia Millipede (Pseudotremia cavernarum) G2G3 S1 LT NL
  • A Millipede (Pseudotremia tuberculata) G2G3 S1S2
  • Roaring Branch Pseudotremia Millipede (Pseudotremia sp. 2) G1? S1?
  • A Cave Millipede (Pseudotremia sp. 3) G1 S1
  • A Millipede (Burkes Garden) (Conotyla sp. 1) G1 S1 
  • A Millipede (Elm Hill) (Aniulus sp. 1) GNR S1
  • A Millipede (Burkes Garden) (Uroblaniulus sp. 1) GNR S1
  • A Millipede (Striaria sp. 1) G1 S1
  • Laurel Creek Xystodesmid Millipede (Sigmoria whiteheadi) G1 S1 LT NL
  • Cedar Millipede (Brachoria cedra) G1G2 S1
  • Big Cedar Creek Millipede (Brachoria falcifera) G1 S1
  • Keeton's Millipede (Brachoria laminata) G1 S1
  • Turner's Millipede (Brachoria turneri) G1 S1
  • Powell Mountain Millipede Sp a (Brachoria sp. 1) G1? S1?
  • Powell Mountain Millipede Sp B (Brachoria sp. 2) G1? S1?
  • Roaring Branch Nannaria Millipede (Nannaria sp. 1) G1? S1?
  • A Cave Centipede (Nampabius turbator) G1G2 S1
  • Montane Centipede (Escaryus cryptorobius) G2 S2
  • Whitetop Mountain Centipede (Escaryus orestes) G1G2 S1S2

Trichoptera (Caddisflies)

  • A Rhyacophilid Caddisfly (Rhyacophila tricornuta) G1G3 S1S3
  • A Caddisfly (Rhyacophila kondratieffi ) G2G3 SNR
  • A Caddisfly (Hydroptila anisoforficata)  G1G2 SNR
  • A Caddisfly (Neophylax toshioi)  G1G2 SNR
  • A Limnephilid Caddisfly (Anabolia apora)  G1G3 S1S3

Arachnida (Spiders & Pseudoscorpions)

  • A Cave mite (Foveacheles paralleloseta)  G1 S1
  • Valentine's Cave Pseudoscorpion (Microcreagris valentinei)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Pseudoscorpion (Apochthonius coecus) G1G2 S1
  • A Cave Pseudoscorpion (Apochthonius holsingeri)  G1G2 S1
  • A Cave Pseudoscorpion (Kleptochthonius regulus) G1G2 S1
  • A Cave Pseudoscorpion (Kleptochthonius anophthalmus)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Pseudoscorpion (Kleptochthonius binoculatus) G1G2 S1
  • Gertsch's Cave Pseudoscorpion (Kleptochthonius gertschi)  G1 S1
  • Lutz's Cave Pseudoscorpion (Kleptochthonius lutzi)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Pseudoscorpion (Kleptochthonius proximosetus)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Pseudoscorpion (Kleptochthonius similis)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Pseudoscorpion (Kleptochthonius sp. 1)  G1 S1
  • Shenandoah Pseudoscorpion (Kleptochthonius polychaetus)  G1G3 S1S3
  • A Cave Pseudoscorpion (Chitrella superba)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Pseudoscorpion (Chitrella sp. 1)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Pseudoscorpion (Mundochthonius holsingeri)  G1 S1
  • Holsinger's cave spider (Nesticus holsingeri) G3G4 S1S2

Crustacea (Amphipods & Isopods)

  • Powell Valley Terrestrial Cave Isopod (Amerigoniscus henroti) G1G2 S1S2
  • Natural Bridge Cave Isopod (Caecidotea bowmani) G1G2 S1
  • Henrot's Cave Isopod (Caecidotea henroti) G1G2  S1S2
  • Vandel's Cave Isopod (Caecidotea vandeli) G3G4 S2
  • Phreatic Isopod (Caecidotea phreatica) G2G3 S1S3
  • Rye Cove Isopod (Lirceus culveri) G1 S1 NL SC
  • Lee County Cave Isopod (Lirceus usdagalun) G2G3 S1 LE LE
  • James Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus abditus) G2G3 S2
  • Rockbridge County Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus baroodyi) G2G3 S1S2
  • Burnsville Cove Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus conradi) G2G3 S1S2
  • Cumberland Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus cumberlandus) G3G4 S1S2
  • Ephemeral Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus ephemerus) G1G2 S1 NL SC
  • Craig County Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus estesi) G4 S3
  • Montgomery County Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus fergusoni ) G2G3 S1
  • Alleghany County Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus hoffmani) G1 S1
  • New Castle Murder Hole Amphipod (Stygobromus interitus) G1G2 S1
  • Lee County Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus leensis) G4 S1S2
  • Bath County Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus mundus) G2G3 S1S2 NL SC
  • Pittsylvania Well Amphipod (Stygobromus obrutus) G1G2 SH
  • Luray Caverns Amphipod (Stygobromus pseudospinosus) G1 S1
  • Madison Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus stegerorum) G1 S1 LT NL
  • Northern Virginia Well Amphipod (Stygobromus phreaticus) G2G3 S1
  • Blue Ridge Mountain Amphipod (Stygobromus spinosus ) G3 S3
  • A Cave Amphipod (Shenandoah County) (Stygobromus sp. 9) G1 S1
  • A Cave Amphipod (Botetourt County) (Stygobromus sp. 10 ) G1 S1
  • A Cave Amphipod (Nelson County) (Stygobromus sp. 11 ) G1 S1
  • A Cave Amphipod (Rockbridge County) (Stygobromus sp. 12) G1 S1
  • Helsley's Cave Amphipod (Stygobromus sp. 16 ) G1 S1
  • Massanutten Spring Amphipod (Stygobromus sp. 17) G2 S2
  • Big Levels Spring Amphipod (Stygobromus sp. 18) G1? S1?
  • A Cave Amphipod (Scott Co.) (Stygobromus sp. 19) G1 S1
  • A Cave Amphipod (Bath and Highland Cos.) (Stygobromus sp. 20) G1 S1
  • Rappahannock Spring Amphipod (Stygobromus sp. 21) G1G2 S1S2
  • Sherando Spinosoid Amphipod (Stygobromus sp. 7) G2 S2
  • Bland County Amphipod (Crangonyx sp. 3) G1? S1
  • Lancaster County amphipod (Crangonyx sp. 5) G1? S1?
  • Racovitza's Terrestrial Cave Isopod (Miktoniscus racovitzai ) G3G4 S2
  • Lee County Terrestrial Cave Isopod (Ligidium elrodii leensis) G4G5T1T2 S1S2
  • Small County Terrestrial Cave Isopod (Ligidium elrodii scottensis) G4G5T1T2 S1S2

Collembola (Springtails)

  • A Cave Springtail (Pseudosinella bona)  G1G2 S1S2
  • A Cave Springtail (Pseudosinella erehwon)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Springtail (Pseudosinella extra)  G1G2 S1
  • A Cave Springtail (Pseudosinella gisini virginia)  G3G4T1 S1
  • A Cave Springtail (Pseudosinella granda)  G1G2 S1S2
  • A Cave Springtail (Arrhopalites lacuna)  G1G2 S1S2
  • A Cave Springtail (Arrhopalites caedus)  G1G2 S1
  • A Cave Springtail (Arrhopalites carolynae)  G2G3 S1
  • A Cave Springtail (Arrhopalites commorus)  G2G4 S1
  • A Cave Springtail (Arrhopalites marshalli)  G2G4 S2
  • A Cave Springtail (Arrhopalites pavo)  G1G2 S1
  • A Cave Springtail (Arrhopalites sacer)  G1G2 S1
  • A Cave Springtail (Arrhopalites silvus)  G1G2 S1
  • A Cave Springtail (Oncopodura hubbardi)  G1G2 S1
  • A Cave Springtail (Schaefferia hubbardi)  G1G2 S1S2
  • A Cave Springtail (Typhlogastrura valentini)  G1 S1

Coleoptera (Beetles)

  • Avernus Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus avernus)  G1 S1
  • Little Kennedy Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus cordicollis)  G1 S1
  • New River Valley Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus egberti)  G1G2 S1
  • Holsinger's Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus holsingeri)  G1 S1 LE NL
  • Burkes Garden Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus hortulanus)  G1 S1
  • Hubbard's Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus hubbardi)  G1 S1
  • Hubricht's Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus hubrichti)  G1 S1
  • Crossroads Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus intersectus)  G1G2 S1
  • Maddens Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus limicola)  G1G2 S1
  • Nelson's Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus nelsoni)  G1G2 S1
  • Hupps Hill Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus parvicollis)  G1 S1
  • Petrunkevitch's Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus petrunkevitchi)  G1G2 S1
  • Natural Bridge Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus pontis) G1 S1
  • Overlooked Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus praetermissus)  G1 S1
  • Spotted Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus punctatus) G2G3 S1
  • Straley's Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus quadratus) G1 S1
  • Saint Paul Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sanctipauli)  G1G2 S1
  • Silken Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sericus)  G1 S1
  • Thomas' Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus thomasi)  G1G2 S1
  • Vicariant Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus vicarius)  G2G3 S1S2
  • Maiden Spring Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus virginicus)  G1 S1
  • Hoffman's Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus hoffmani)  G2G3 S1S2
  • A Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus pusio)  G2G3 S1S2
  • Delicate Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus delicatus)  G3G4 S2
  • A Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus seclusus)  G2G3 S2
  • A Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sp. 4)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus gracilis)  G1G2 S1S2
  • A Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sp. 5)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sp. 6)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sp. 7)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sp. 8)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sp. 9)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sp. 10)  G1 S1
  • A Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sp. 11)  G1 S1
  • Catawba Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sp. 12)  G1 S1
  • Mcmullan Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sp. 13) G1 S1
  • Karl's Pit Cave Beetle (Pseudanophthalmus sp. 14) G1 S1
  • Maureen's Shale Stream Beetle (Hydraena maureenae) G1G3 S1S3
  • A Pselaphid Beetle (Rybaxis sp. 1)  GU SU

Heteroptera (True Bugs)

  • Virginia Piedmont Water Boatman (Sigara depressa)  G1G2 S1S2 LE NL
  • Seashore Mirid Bug (Pycnoderiella virginiana)  G1 SU

Homoptera (Cicadas and Leafhoppers)

  • Buffalo Mountain Mealybug (Puto kosztarabi) G1 S1 LE NL
  • Phlox Whitefly (Trialeurodes phlogis) GU SU

Orthoptera (Grasshoppers, Crickets, Katydids)

  • A spur-throat grasshopper (Melanoplus sp. 55)  G1G2 S1S2
  • A spur-throat grasshopper (Melanoplus sp. 59)   G1G2 S1S2

Plectoptera (Stoneflies)

  • Cryptic Willowfly (Taeniopteryx nelsoni)  G1 S1
  • Virginia Sallfly (Sweltsa voshelli)  G3 S2
  • Holston Sallfly (Sweltsa holstonensis)  G1 S1
  • Lobed Roachfly (Tallaperla lobata)  G2 S1S2
  • Manassas Stonefly (Acroneuria flinti)  GH SH
  • Teays Stonefly (Perlesta teaysia)  G3 S1S3
  • Big Stripetail Stonefly (Isoperla major)  G1 S1
  • Blue Ridge Springfly (Remenus kirchneri)  G2 S2

Diplura (Diplurans)

  • A Cave Dipluran (Litocampa sp. 3) G2 S2
  • A Cave Dipluran (Litocampa sp. 4) G2 S1S2
  • A Cave Dipluran (Salamander Cave) (Litocampa sp. 1) G1 S1
  • Puckett's Cave Dipluran (Litocampa pucketti) G1G2 SNR


Wilson, I.T. and T. Tuberville. 2003. Virginia’s Precious Heritage: A Report on the Status of Virginia’s Natural Communities, Plants, and Animals, and a Plan for Preserving Virginia’s Natural Heritage Resources. Natural Heritage Technical Report 03-15. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, 217 Governor Street, 3rd Floor, Richmond, Virginia. 82 pages plus appendices. 

Note; the lists above have been updated and expanded since the publication of the heritage plan in 2003.

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