Acadian Low-Elevation Spruce-Fir-Hardwood Forest

These spruce-fir forests cover large expanses of the landscape in the Acadian and northern Appalachian regions. They occur at low to moderate elevations on a variety of landforms. The soils are acidic and usually rocky, mostly well- to moderately well-drained but sometimes with somewhat poorly drained patches, particularly at slope bottoms. Dominant trees are red spruce and balsam fir; black spruce, white spruce, and northern white-cedar are common associates. Yellow birch is the most typical hardwood associate; paper birch, beech, and red or sugar maple are often present. In earlier successional patches, paper birch, aspen, and larch are mixed in with the spruce and fir. Small-scale blowdowns with subsequent gap regeneration are the most frequent form of natural disturbance, with large-scale fires important at rare intervals. For more information, see NatureServe Explorer.

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